Bienvenue, Bienvenidos, Swakum, Welcome to Sophal's New World!

You have reached my humble abode on the Internet courtesy of my alma mater, the University of California, BerkeleyIn the late 1990s, I was away from the Ivory Towers of academe, away from the hypothetical, stylized world of international macroeconomic models gone awry for a few years, but I'm back! Having finished my PhD from Berkeley in May 2006, and completed a >Post-Doctoral Fellowship in May 2007 in the Department of Public Administration at the Maxwell School of Syracuse University where I taught PPA 756: Policy and Administration in Developing Countries and did my own research, I am now an Assistant Professor in the Department of National Security Affairs at the United States Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. And that's not all, on 7 July 2006, I married the lovely Chamnan Lim in Silver Spring, Maryland (check out our Weddings and Celebrations Announcement in the New York Times).

In January 2002, I started sharing one of my hidden passions: amateur photography. where many of my 35mm pictures are archived online for your viewing pleasure. There are nearly a thousand pictures (of Thailand, Taiwan, Cambodia, and more) and quite a few captions to guide you through the Carl Zeiss T* lens of my Yashica T-4 point-and-shoot camera (which I have owned since 1996). Enjoy! You'll need an account, if you don't already have one, but don't worry--it's FREE. It's a simple matter of registering with an e-mail address and choosing a password. Leave a comment in my guestbook on which pictures you like best. As I'm fond of saying, I'm already the luckiest guy in the world (which means that I am NOT entitled to complain or whine, ever, given how blessed I've been)! I went from living on AFDC (welfare) in the late 1980s, early 1990s to becoming an Assistant Resident Representative for the United Nations Development Programme (2002-2003) working in Cambodia and Timor-Leste (East Timor) on "Democratic Governance" to enable the State to create a system that promotes, supports, and sustains human development (and prior to that, I worked for three years for the World Bank on "Social Protection" which includes social assistance, i.e., welfare or some conception thereof).

For the three years prior to 2002, I took almost ten thousand more pictures on trips to more than a dozen countries, including Algeria, Australia, Cambodia, Canada, China (including Hong Kong & Macau, SAR), Denmark, Finland, France, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Palestine (West Bank & Gaza). I'm still working on putting about half of these online. As of May 2005, I have travelled to 35 countries and territories.

In July 1997, I took a breather and went, bright-eyed and bushy-tailed, into the so-called real world where people actually make money for a living and where there are no free homepages for life (like this one) nor free lunches for that matter. I was east of the Mississippi in Our Nation's Capital, working for el Banco Mundial, la Banque mondiale, the World Bank, whose mission it was "to reduce poverty and improve living standards through sustainable growth and investment in people." Today, the Bank's mission won't fit in a snappy sentence. It's become too unwieldy.

Established circa 1994 (well before my stint as an international bureaucrat and, as it so happens, in the same year as, this homepage is dedicated to liberty and the pursuit of happiness for all citizens of the world. As a more practical purpose, it serves as a repository of my own writings (rantings). In the summer of 1997, my home on the Internet was named a Freedom Homepage of the Week. And so begins my story...

As you can probably guess, I am originally from Cambodia--a small Southeast Asian country bordered by Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. Born in late 1974 or early 1975 (the date escapes me as I was still wet behind the ears) my family and I left a year after the Maoists-inspired communist Khmer Rouge took power. In an amazing and harrowing tale of survival, my mother was able to get herself, my siblings, and yours truly, into Vietnam in 1976, where we stayed until 1978. By her own account, she decided to take a chance when told that the Vietnamese Prime Minister was recalling all Vietnamese citizens out of Democratic Kampuchea (the now infamous name Cambodia was given by its new Khmer Rouge leadership, headed by Pol Pot). This was the second time the Khmer Rouge in our commune had announced the repatriation of Vietnamese nationals. The first time, it was a ruse and my mother, suspecting as much, refused to play along. As she had the fortune of speaking some Vietnamese (having dealt with some Vietnamese vendors and shopkeepers at the local markets) she decided to try her luck at pretending to be Vietnamese. Boys and girls, this is a really important lesson for those of you who hate learning foreign languages--don't think they can't save your lives because they can, and do. Tested twice, once by a Khmer Rouge cadre fluent in Vietnamese, and again by a Vietnamese communist cadre, she passed. My father wasn't so lucky, he died of malnutrition and disease before we left DK. As a direct result of their draconian policies, the KR killed close to two million people--or more than quarter of the population--and set the country back by decades.

By 1978 we were newly minted Cambodian refugees in Valery Giscard d'Estaing's France. We settled in Meudon, a so-called banlieu of Paris. There, I grew up speaking much more French than Cambodian, and fitting in quite well. The French have that je ne sais quoi ability to endear themselves to you. My summers were spent with French families in the countryside of Argenton or the beaches of Normandy at Carteret. In fact, I even lived for two years with a Belgian-French Family, with whom I have since lost contact. Perhaps you know the Anfrie family, with their son Eric, and three daughters Marie-Noel, Annick and Christine? Last I knew, they moved to The Netherlands in the mid-1980s [NEWS FLASH!!! THEY FOUND ME THROUGH THIS HOMEPAGE IN NOVEMBER 2002 AND WE REUNITED IN APELDORN, THE NETHERLANDS, IN JULY 2003. IN NOVEMBER 2005, MAMAN & PAPA ANFRIE CAME TO PHNOM PENH TO VISIT ME. WE HAD A MARVELOUS TIME]. By the age of 10, I was ready to come to America, the land of "Starsky and Hutch" where streets were rationally numbered and you had "blocks" to walk before reaching your destination. So, in 1985, my family and I moved to the New World (leaving childhood friends like Laetitia Valdez, the freckled Franco-Greek girl from sixth grade, behind--whom I'm still trying to find after two visits back to Meudon) to the land of milk and honey, sweet land of liberty. I believe that this was a formative experience in shaping the way I now view the world. The Cold War was still cold, and much of the world divided by the hegemony of the United States and the Soviet Union. We had what might be termed competing ideologies and it was not yet clear that Mutually Assured Destruction was out of the picture.

A graduate of Berkeley High School and Willard Junior High School, I entered UC Berkeley in the Fall of 1991. What an experience that was! Far from forgettable, Berkeley gave me the will to triumph over my own ignorance. In four short years I learned more and wrote more passionately than I had ever done before. Economics and Political Science never seemed so wonderfully exhilarating. On the eve of graduation, I wrote that "Berkeley taught me to write, to count, and most importantly to think." In short, I learned the value of scholarship. My life changed dramatically the following fall when I moved East to attend the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. On a full scholarship from the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation to do my Master in Public Affairs degree, these two years following Berkeley were challenging and filled with opportunities. I came full circle when, in the summer of 1996, I returned to Cambodia after a 20 year absence. I returned to a Cambodia I never knew. Armed with a dozens rolls of film and 14 hours of videotape, I created fresh memories and reminisce now of the "good old days" that never were. Upon my return to Princeton, the ex-Monsieur le Président de la République happened to visit for a talk on accession to the European Union and the launch of the Euro pursuant to the Maastricht Treaty. I was able to get to within a particularly good earshot of him, as a photographer took this picture. Patsy Schroeder can be seen in the middle looking on, as if deeply interested in the saga of yet another nameless, faceless Cambodian refugee.

John F. Kennedy, adapting fom Sun Tzu's >Art of War, once said: "Forgive your enemies, but never forget their names." For a dose of mortality and hope, visit the Digital Archive of Cambodian Holocaust Survivors where you can find a half-dozen stories from everyday folks who lived through one of the 20th Century's most barbaric experiences--life under the Khmer Rouge between 1975 and 1979. "When this you see, remember me." The Producer, Director, and Documentarian, Tiara Delgado, has made a wonderful 30-minute documentary in which my mom and I play a small part. Launched at the Silverlake Film Festival in early 2005 and narrated by Susan Sarandon, it's called "Fragile Hopes from the Killing Fields". But don't take my word for it, Todd David Schwartz of CBS Radio called it "Powerful and Eye Opening..." (Okay, I'll *try* not to let it get to my head ;-), but if I forget, please feel free to burst my bubble!). More recently, I spoke at TED2009 as a TED Fellow, an amazing experience. Watch my TEDTalk here and read my TED Blog Q&A here.

Over the years, I have published extensively on Cambodia. Most of this work is assembled here today, thanks to hypertext markup language and PDF. In recent years, aside from the generous Fellowship support of UC Berkeley, I am grateful for the following extramural support received: a Blakemore Freeman Fellowship For Advanced Asian Language Study which I used to study Khmer in Cambodia 2003-04, a Foreign Language Area Studies (FLAS) Fellowship at the Southeast Asia Summer Studies Institute (SEASSI) 2001 in magical Madison, WI (ah, those glimmering lakes in the summertime), and a Center for Khmer Studies-Council of American Overseas Research Center-funded Fellowship in 2004-05. By the way, just as I have received generously from others, I am happy to advise future scholars or potential applicants via e-mail... part and parcel of the Karmic-cosmic grand scheme of things. I highly value the force of an argument, the thirst for knowledge, and the ability of adversaries to agree to disagree--that is why I welcome your comments wholeheartedly. Above all else though, Mary Beard's dictum applies: "Action without study is fatal. Study without action is futile." Universities provide a venue for discourse better than anywhere else. As Thomas Jefferson once said, "Universities are based on the illimitable freedom of the human mind. For here we are not afraid to follow truth wherever it may lead, nor to tolerate any error so long as reason is left free to combat it." Since 2003, and the passing of my dear friend Om Radsady (a former Parliamentatian and teacher), I have also wanted to help build a memorial to his legacy. On February 19, 2005, this memorial became a reality with the inauguration of the Trapeang Kdar School (nicknamed "The School Om Radsady's Legacy Built") in Kampong Chhnang Province thanks to the Om Radsady Memorial Fund for Democracy, for which I serve the emotionally rewarding, but thankless task of Board Member and indefatiguable fundraiser. Radsady was a very modest man, and he frowned upon the numerous schools mushrooming across the land bearing people's (especially politicians') names. Out of respect for his views, the school is not named after him, but after the village in which it was built.


“Livelihoods and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Cambodia” (with Sigfrido Burgos, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), article under review in a refereed journal.

“Ο Ιερός Κανόνας των Ερυθρών Χμερ” (translation from Greek: “The Holy Rule of the Khmer Rouge” based on my undergraduate honors thesis “The Khmer Rouge Cannon”), Libertarian Movement, Athens, Greece, September-October 2009.

"Trade and Commerce in Southeast Asia" (with Pierre van der Eng, Australia National University) and "Education in Colonial Southeast Asia" (with Christine Inglis, University of Sydney) Entries in Jim Overfield (University of Vermont), ed. World History Encyclopedia, ABC-Clio, forthcoming August 2009.

"The Political Economy of Aid and Regime Legitimacy in Cambodia", in Joakim Ojendal (University of Gothenburg) and Mona Lilja (University of Gothenburg), eds. Beyond Democracy in Cambodia: Political Reconstruction in a Post-Conflict Society, Series: Democracy in Asia | Volume: 12, Copenhagen: NIAS Press, forthcoming June 2009.

“Topic 3: Governance, Fragility, and Failure: Implications for Livelihoods”, [PDF Acrobat File] Getting Back to Work: Rebuilding Livelihoods in Post-Conflict Environments Workshop, Center for Stabilization and Reconstruction Studies, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, 27 April 2009.

“Sowing and Sewing Growth: The Political Economy of Rice and Garments in Cambodia”, SCID Working Paper 384, Stanford, CA: Stanford Center for International Development, April 2009.

“Cambodia’s Victim Zero: Global and National Responses to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza”, [PDF Acrobat File] The Political Economy of Avian Influenza: SE Asia country study workshop, Lansdowne Place Hotel, Brighton, United Kingdom, 26-27 February 2009; also presented at the Western Political Science Association Meeting, Panel 16. 01 - At the Intersection of Policy Making and Administration, Hyatt Regency Vancouver, BC, Canada, 19 March 2009. Published as Ear, S. (2009) Cambodia’s Victim Zero: Global and National Responses to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, STEPS Working Paper 16, Brighton: STEPS Centre an abridged version of which will be a book chapter by a similar title in a refereed edited volume by Ian Scoones (University of Sussex) to be published by Earthscan.

Cambodia: The Wild East” (with Jim Walker), Asianomics, No.1, 19 February 2009. E-mail me if you would like a FREE hardcopy.

“Escape from the Killing Fields”, [PDF Acrobat File] TED University Talk delivered at TED2009, Long Beach, CA, 6 February 2009.

“Reducing the ‘sweat’ from Cambodia’s sweatshops”, [PDF Acrobat File] TED Fellows Talk delivered at TED2009, Long Beach, CA, 3 February 2009.

“The Political Economy of Cambodia’s Growth: Rice and Garments”, [PDF Acrobat File] Workshop on Cambodia’s Economic Transformation, Sunway Hotel, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 5-7 January 2009. This will result in a book chapter by a similar title as the talk in a refereed volume by Caroline Hughes (University of Murdoch) and Kheang Un (Northern Illinois University), eds. Cambodia’s Economic Transformation, Copenhagen: NIAS Press, forthcoming 2010.

"Cambodia", [PDF Acrobat File] in Ian Storey and Lee Poh Onn, eds. Regional Outlook: Southeast Asia 2009-2010, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore, January 2009.

“Governance, Fragility, and Failure: Implications for Livelihoods”, [PDF Acrobat File] Creating Jobs and Rebuilding Livelihoods Workshop, Center for Stabilization and Reconstruction Studies, Naval Postgraduate School, 27 October 2008. A report for the workshop is available here [PDF Acrobat File].

"Poultry Sector Vision for Cambodia: Production", [PDF Acrobat File] Workshop on Avian Influenza Research Activities in Cambodia sponsored by Food and Agriculture of the United Nations, Sihanoukville, Cambodia, 8, 9, and 10 October 2008.

"Cambodia’s Economy", [PDF Acrobat File] Briefing at (“Ambassadorial”) Conference on Cambodia for Ambassador Carol Rodley sponsored by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the U.S. Department of State, Diplomatic and Consular Officers, Retired (DACOR) Bacon House, Washington, DC, 9:00 am-1:00 pm, 15 September 2008.

"Justice, Forgiveness, and the Khmer Rouge Tribunal", [PDF Acrobat File] Lecture, sponsored by Religion, Politics and Globalization Program (RPGP) , International of International Studies, Human Rights Center, and Center for Southeast Asia Studies, 223 Moses Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 4 pm, 12 September 2008.

"Cambodia and Thailand's Standoff Threatens Regional Stability" (with John Hall, Chapman University Law School), Los Angeles Daily Journal and San Francisco Daily Journal, California's largest legal news provider, Forum, page 6, 31 July 2008. Reprinted in New American Media, Commentary, 1 August 2008.

"Managing Democracy: Cambodia's Free Press Under Fire" (with John Hall, Chapman University Law School), International Herald Tribune, Op-Ed, and reprinted as "A Free Press in Cambodia Now More Critical Than Ever" in The Cambodia Daily, Opinion, 28 July 2008.

"Special Issue on Southeast Asian American Demographics: Response-Public Policy/Political Science", Journal of Southeast Asian American Education & Advancement, Vol. 3, an official publication of the National Association for the Education and Advancement of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese Americans (NAFEA), with support from the Department of Bicultural-Bilingual Studies and the College of Education and Human Development at the University of Texas, San Antonio, June 2008, pp. 58-61.

"Southeast Asia: History, Politics, and Culture", [PDF Acrobat File] (with Michael Malley, Naval Postgraduate School) Regional Security Education Program in support of Pacific Partnership 2008, aboard the USNS Mercy, sailing from Guam to Cotabato (Mindanao, Republic of the Philippines), May 23-29, 2008.

"Book Review: International Democracy Assistance for Peacebuilding (Palgrave Macmillan, 2007) by Sorpong Peou & Dancing in Shadows (Rowman & Littlefield, 2008) by Benny Widyono", [PDF Acrobat File] Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 30, Issue 1, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS), Singapore, April 2008, pp. 140-143.

"Political Economy of HPAI in Cambodia: Research Proposal", [PDF Acrobat File] Avian Influenza: The Politics and Policy Processes of a Global Response, STEPS Centre, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9RE, United Kingdom, April 25, 2008.

"Cambodia: Fragile Hopes After the Killing Fields", [PDF Acrobat File] Justice and Human Rights in Cambodia Lecture, Whitley Auditorium, Elon University, Elon, NC, 7:30pm, April 1, 2008.

"Justice, Forgiveness, and the Khmer Rouge Trials", [PDF Acrobat File] From Auschwitz to Darfur: The Genocide Convention at Sixty, A Legal Symposium Marking the 60th Anniversary of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Chapman University School of Law, Center for Global Trade & Development, Orange, CA, March 13, 2008.

"Discussion Brief/Points on the Politics of Binding Constraints to Growth in Cambodia", [PDF Acrobat File] Workshop on the Political-Economy of Binding Constraints to Growth in Cambodia, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, February 25, 2008.

"From 'Warship' to 'Peace Vessel': Essex in Cambodia (26 Nov-2 Dec 07)", [PDF Acrobat File] Navy 2008 Stability and Security Conference, Marriot Crystal Gateway Hotel, Crystal City, VA, January 30-31, 2008.

"Does Aid Dependence Worsen Governance?", International Public Management Journal, Volume 10, Issue 3, September 2007, pp. 259-286, the refereed journal of the International Public Management Network. An earlier draft was presented in the Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California (October 25, 2006); the Department of Political Science and International Studies, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea (November 21, 2006); the International Conference on Social Science Research, Vancouver, Canada (December 10-12, 2006); the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada (December 13, 2006), and the Department of Public Administration, Maxwell School of Syracuse University (February 1, 2007). E-mail if you'd like a FREE copy of the article.

"The Political Economy of Aid and Governance in Cambodia", Asian Journal of Political Science, Volume 15, Issue 1, April 2007, pp. 68-96, a refereed journal of the Department of Political Science, National University of Singapore. E-mail if you'd like a FREE copy of the article.

"Khmer Rouge", "Kampuchea", and "Pol Pot" Entries (with Susan Ear, UC Berkeley), World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia edited by Cyprian P. Blamires (University of Oxford), ABC-Clio, September 2006.

"Human Rights & Freedom of Expression Events: Learning from Experience" [PDF Acrobat File of PowerPoint Presentation] Research Paper Presentation, Pact Cambodia, Phnom Penh, May 5, 2006. The complete paper, entitled "Change and Continuity in Cambodian Human Rights and Freedom of Expression: Learning from Experience" is available here [but be forewarned, it's a 279 page, 3.8 megabyte PDF Acrobat File].

The Political Economy of Aid, Governance, and Policy-Making: Cambodia in Global, National, and Sectoral Perspectives, [1.8 megabyte PDF Acrobat File] Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley, filed April 19, 2006. The "official" University copy, with an abstract and 24 page preview (stored by ProQuest Information and Learning Company) is available for purchase here, but why pay money?

"The Political Economy of Pro-Poor Livestock Policy in Cambodia," [PDF Acrobat File] Working Paper 26, Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, August 2005. A Policy Brief version of the paper (for those who don't have time to read all 66 of its pages) was published at the same time and is available here. Those who have even less time can glance at the abstract!

"Governance and Economic Performance: Credibility, Political Will, and Reform," [PDF Acrobat File] Cambodian Economic Review, Cambodian Economic Association, May 2005, pp. 17-52.

"One Way Out," (with Cam Youk Lim) [PDF Acrobat File] The New York Times, Section 6; Column 1; Magazine Desk; LIVES; Pg. 134, April 17, 2005. Reprinted as "Woman Returns to Phnom Penh After 30 Years" in The Cambodia Daily, April 19, 2005.

"Can Aid Both Help and Hinder Governance?" [PDF Acrobat File of PowerPoint Presentation] Paper Presentation Seminar, Asian Development Bank Headquarters, Manila, Philippines, November 9, 2004.

"Towards Understanding Social Protection in Cambodia," (with Sophal Chan) [PDF Acrobat File], Cambodia Development Review, Vol. 8, Issue 4, Cambodia Development Resource Institute, October-December 2004, pp. 9-13. Presented [PDF Acrobat File of PowerPoint Presentation] at the 7th Socio-Cultural Research Congress on Cambodia, Royal University of Phnom Penh, 16 November 2004, and reprinted in Congress Proceedings. Full report commissioned by the World Bank was presented (with Sophal Chan) as "Cambodia: Expenditure Analysis and Stocktaking of Social Protection" at the Dialogue on Social Protection, Phnom Penh, July 19-20, 2004.

"Language As Freedom / My Language Is My Passport," Survivor Stories, Documentation Center of Cambodia, 2004.

"Op-Ed Avoids Real Problem," The Daily Californian, Letter to the Editor, Friday, September 26, 2003.

"A man with no enemies," (with Dr. Peter Li) The Phnom Penh Post, Letter to the Editor, Issue 12/06, March 14-27, 2003.

"Cambodia" Entry, Encyclopedia of World Terrorism: 1996-2002, edited by Frank G. Shanty and Raymond Picquet, ISBN 1563248077, M.E. Sharpe, Inc. (Sharpe Reference), February 2003. Don't pay full price though, just click here.

"Analysis of the Results-Oriented Workshop on the Roles and Functions of International Advisors: Towards a Capacity Building Strategy and Action Plan for Timor-Leste" (with Toshi Nakamura) [PDF Acrobat File of PowerPoint Presentation], United Nations Development Programme, Dili, East Timor, December 11, 2002. Click here for the full report.

"How Does Spousal Education Matter? Some Evidence From Cambodia" (with Tomoki Fujii) [PDF Acrobat File], Asian Development Review, Vol. 19, No. 1, August 2002, pp. 117-138, a refereed journal of the Asian Development Bank. Presented draft of the paper [PDF Acrobat File of PowerPoint Presentation with Tomoki Fujii] on August 23, 2002 at a special Research Forum session held at the Cambodia Development Resource Institute, Phnom Penh. An earlier draft was also presented as a poster, International Symposium: "Sustaining Food Security and Managing Natural Resources in Southeast Asia: Challenges for the 21st Century". Organized by the University of Hohenheim, Chiang Mai University, and Kasetsart University (Thailand). Funded by the Eiselen Foundation (Germany). Royal Orchid Hotel, Chiang Mai, Thailand, January 8-11, 2002.

"Human Development Report 2002: Deepening Democracy in a Fragmented World," [PDF Acrobat File of PowerPoint Presentation], United Nations Development Programme Global Launch, Hotel Le Royal, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, July 24, 2002.

"Has More Aid Worsened Governance Since 1995? A Large-N Study of Six Quality of Governance Indicators" [PDF Acrobat File], M.A. Essay, Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley, May 6, 2002.

"Change and Continuity in the Political Economy of Cambodia: Before and After the Commune Elections" [PDF Acrobat File of PowerPoint Presentation], presented at the quarterly meeting of Khmer United, a community-based organization. SeaPort Marina Hotel, Long Beach, California, April 27-28, 2002.

"Tobacco, Poverty, and Socioeconomic Status in Cambodia" [PDF Acrobat File], One-Page Research Prospectus and PowerPoint [PDF Acrobat File of PowerPoint Presentation], presented at the "Tobacco Control Research Workshop". Organized by the Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance, the Johns Hopkins University and the University of Illinois at Chicago. Supported by the Rockefeller Foundation. Felix Kwai River Resort Hotel, Kanchanaburi, Thailand, March 25-29, 2002.

"Cambodia and the U.N." [PDF Acrobat File], The New York Times, [Letter to the Editor Section] February 21, 2002.

Reducing Vulnerability and Increasing Opportunity: Social Protection in the Middle East and North Africa [Contributed inputs and comments], The World Bank, Report No. 24560, January 1, 2002.

"Transparency Through Government Initiatives: From the 'Washington Consensus' to the African Experience" and "Role and Agenda of the Private Sector" [Both PDF Acrobat Files of PowerPoint Presentations], International Conference "Building a Coalition for Transparency". Co-organized by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Center for Social Development (CSD). Sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), Partnership for Transparency Fund (PTF), and USAID through the Asia Foundation. Hotel Inter-Continental, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, August 22-23, 2001.

"Cambodia and the 'Washington Consensus' Revisited, Following the Twin Crises" [PDF Acrobat File of PowerPoint Presentation], Asian Development Bank Seminar, ADB Headquarters, Manila, the Philippines, August 15, 2001.

"Cambodia and the 'Washington Consensus' Redux" [PDF Acrobat File of PowerPoint Presentation], Southeast Asian Studies Summer Institute (SEASSI) Conference: "Southeast Asia in the Wake of the Crisis: Democratization, Nationalism and Responses to Globalization". University of Wisconsin at Madison, June 22-23, 2001.

(translation from Khmer: "Romanticizing the Khmer Revolution" based on a chapter in my undergraduate honors thesis “The Khmer Rouge Cannon”), [PDF Acrobat File in Khmer] The Truth, Documentation Center of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Issue 17, May 2001. Original English-Language Draft [PDF Acrobat File]

Morocco: Poverty Update [Contributed to Labor Markets with Guillermo Hakim], The World Bank, Report No. 21506-MOR, March 30, 2001.

"The World Bank and Cambodia: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know... But Were Afraid to Ask" [PDF Acrobat File of PowerPoint Presentation], Cambodian Development Colloquium, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, September 23, 2000.

"Forestry Deja Vu" [Letter to the Editor], Phnom Penh Post, Issue 9/11, May 26-June 8, 2000.

Cambodia: Poverty Assessment [Contributed to Post-Conflict and Rural Development], The World Bank, Report No. 19858-KH, November 22, 1999.

"UC Berkeley Will Lose Out," The Daily Californian, Letter to the Editor, Thursday, November 4, 1999.

"Why Cambodia is No Basket Case," Pacific News Service, January 29, 1999. Reprinted in JINN Magazine, Issue No. 5.02, 01/18/99-01/31/99. Reprinted by South Africa's new media company, WOZA Internet (Pty) Ltd., February 1, 1999. Reprinted as "The Other Cambodia: Signs of Hope Remain Largely Overlooked" in AsianWeek, February 11, 1999.

"Cambodia and the Washington Consensus," [PDF Acrobat File] Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, refereed by the Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University, Volume 11, Number 2, 1997, pp. 73-97. Reprinted as Chapter 22 in Peou, Sorpong, ed. Cambodia: Change and Continuity in Contemporary Politics, Ashgate Press, UK, 2001.

"How the Asian Crisis Will Impact Cambodia," The CICP Newsletter, Cambodian Institute for Cooperation and Peace, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Issue No. 23, January-February 1998. Based on an interview with Radio Free Asia in January 1998 that was broadcast February 3, 1998.

"A Currency Board for Cambodia", Les Cahiers du Ceria, serie rouge, Center for Asian Interdisciplinary Studies and Research, no. 2, juillet 1997.

"Cambodia: Negotiating the Peace Accords", Les Cahiers du Ceria, serie rouge, Center for Asian Interdisciplinary Studies and Research, no. 1, juin 1997.

"Editorial: Peace and Democracy at Risk in Cambodia," Pacific Asia Review, Princeton University, Vol. 3, No. 4, April 1997.

"Observation: Competition, Bargaining, Information, and Price Discrimination in Cambodia's Psah," The CICP Newsletter, Cambodian Institute for Cooperation and Peace, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Issues No. 15 & 16, June-July 1996.

"Dollarization, Monetary Independence and Inflation," The CICP Newsletter, Cambodian Institute for Cooperation and Peace, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Issues No. 15 & 16, June-July 1996.

"The Internet Comes to Cambodia," The CICP Newsletter, Cambodian Institute for Cooperation and Peace, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, No. 14, May 1996.

"The Khmer Rouge Canon," Khmer Conscience, Vol. IX, No. 1, Winter 1995.

"Excerpts: Cambodia's Economic Development and History," Khmer Conscience, Vol. IX, No. 1, Winter 1995.

"One Side of the Two-Sided Switch: Benedict Kiernan and the Khmer Rouge," Khmer Conscience, Vol. IX, No. 1, Winter 1995.

Cambodia's Economic Development in Historical Perspective. [PDF Acrobat File] Ronald E. McNair Research Paper, UC Berkeley, August 1995, August 1995, presented at the Ronald E. McNair Scholar Symposium at UC Berkeley, August 11, 1995.

"Cambodia's Economic Development in Historical Perspective (1953-1970)", Berkeley McNair Journal, UC Berkeley, Volume 3, Summer 1995, pp. 25-37.
The Khmer Rouge Canon 1975-1979: The Standard Total Academic View on Cambodia. [PDF Acrobat File] Undergraduate Honors Thesis in Political Science, Department of Political Science, UC Berkeley, May 1995. HTML File

Cambodia's Economic Development and History: A Contribution to the Study of the Cambodian Economy. Undergraduate Honors Thesis in Economics, Department of Economics, UC Berkeley, March 22, 1995.

"Are We Ready for Democracy?" Khmer Conscience, Vol. V, No. 1, Winter 1991. Reprinted in Nguoi Viet [Vietnamese People] Weekly, Vol. 13, No. 2101, May 23, 1991.

I want to hear your comments about my rantings. Lastly, I have been interviewed by or featured in the Asian Wall Street Journal (1998), AsianWeek (2000), EAP Feature (2000), the International Herald Tribune (2000), Radio Free Asia (1998 & 2001), the San Francisco Examiner (2000), US Trek (a PBS-affiliated K-12 educational website), the Village Voice (1996), the Voice of America (1999), the Washington Post (2000), the Washington Times (1997), the Cambodia Daily (2001 & 2005), NewsRadio 93.8FM in Singapore (2001), KRLD 1080AM in Dallas-Fort Worth (2000), The New York Times (2002 & 2005), and Australia TV (April 2006). And don't forget to take a look at my pictures! If a picture is worth a thousand words, my album is worth nearly a million...

You can reach me via e-mail at either one of two permanent addresses on the Internet: or